Coarse-Grained Effective Hamiltonian via the Magnus Expansion for a Three-Level System

Authors: Nicola Macrì, Luigi Giannelli, Elisabetta Paladino and Giuseppe Falci 

Entropy 2023, 25(2), 234

Abstract: Quantum state processing is one of the main tools of quantum technologies. While real systems are complicated and/or may be driven by non-ideal control, they may nevertheless exhibit simple dynamics approximately confined to a low-energy Hilbert subspace. Adiabatic elimination is the simplest approximation scheme allowing us to derive in certain cases an effective Hamiltonian operating in a low-dimensional Hilbert subspace. However, these approximations may present ambiguities and difficulties, hindering a systematic improvement of their accuracy in larger and larger systems. Here, we use the Magnus expansion as a systematic tool to derive ambiguity-free effective Hamiltonians. We show that the validity of the approximations ultimately leverages only on a proper coarse-graining in time of the exact dynamics. We validate the accuracy of the obtained effective Hamiltonians with suitably tailored fidelities of quantum operations.